The cloud data centers are the infrastructure of cloud computing networks. The continuous penetration of cloud computing business has stimulated the construction of super data centers. The cloud infrastructure is mainly composed of switches and servers. Fiber optic cables and optical transceivers, or active optical cables and direct attach cables are used for the connection. The large scale of cloud data centers will greatly increase the usage of optical transceivers and the requirements to transmission distance, which will increase the usage ratio of single mode optical transceivers.
In the cloud data centers, the explosive growth of the traffic is driving the data rate of optical transceivers to escalate and accelerate. It has taken 5 years from 10G to 40G, then 4 years from 40G to 100G, and may likely take only 3 years from 100G to 400G. All the export data in the future data centers need to go through the internal mass operation (especially the rising internal and export flow of AI, VR/AR, UHD video, and so on). The flow of the east-west direction in the data center is turbulent, and the flat data center architecture makes the 100G optical transceiver market continue to grow at a high speed.
According to the report of third party institution, the number of global super large data centers will be over 500 by the end of 2019. Then 83% of the public cloud servers and 86% of the public cloud load will be loaded in the super data centers, the ratio of deployment of super data center servers will rise from 21% to 47%, the ratio of processing capacity will be increased from 39% to 68%, and the ratio of traffic will be increased from 34% to 53%.
The direction of the main data flow of traditional 3-tier data center is from top to bottom or from south to north, while the direction of the main data flow of flat spine-leaf data center is from east to west.
Here is a data center optical interconnect application case of optical transceivers and AOC. The network architecture of a Cloud Data Center is pided into Spine Core, Edge Core, and ToR (Top of Rack). The 10G SFP+ AOC is used for the interconnection between the ToR access switches and the server NICs. The 40G QSFP+ SR4 optical transceivers and MTP/MPO cables are used for the interconnection between the ToR access switches and the Edge Core switches. The 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 optical transceivers and duplex LC cables are used for the interconnection between the Edge Core switches and the Spine Core switches.
The trend of the port bandwidth upgrades for Cloud Data Centers is from 10G to 25G, and then from 25G to 100G.
|Data Center Campus||40G-LR4||
|Intra-Rack||CAT6||10G AOC||25G AOC||100G AOC|
|Sever Data Rate||1G||10G||25G||100G|
According to the difference in the rate of increase in flow, network architecture, reliability requirements and the environment of the machine room compared to telecommunication networks, the demand for optical transceivers of cloud data centers has the following characteristics: shorter iteration period, higher speed, higher density, lower power consumption and use by mass.
|Optical Transceivers Solution||Applications||Maximum Connection Distance|
|400G QSFP-DD SR8||400GE, 2x200GE||100m|
|200G QSFP-DD SR8||2x100GE||100m|
|200G QSFP-DD PSM8||2x100GE||2km-10km|
|200G QSFP56 SR4||200GE||100m|
|100G QSFP28 SR4||100GE, OTU4, 128GFC/4x32GFC||100m-300m|
|100G QSFP28 PSM4||100GE||2km-10km|
|100G QSFP28 CWDM4||100GE||2km-10km|
|100G QSFP28 CLR4||100GE||2km-10km|
|100G QSFP28 4WDM-10||100GE||10km|
|100G QSFP28 LR4||100GE, OTU4||10km-20km|
|100G QSFP28 4WDM-40||100GE||30km-40km|
|100G QSFP28 ER4 Lite||100GE, OTU4||30km-40km|
|50G SFP56 SR||50GE||100m|
|40G QSFP+ SR4||40GE, OTU3||400m|
|40G QSFP+ PSM4||40GE, OTU3||2km-10km|
|40G QSFP+ LR4||40GE, OTU3||2km-10km|
|40G QSFP+ ER4||40GE, OTU3||40km|
|Active Optical Cables Solution||Applications||Maximum Connection Distance|
|400G QSFP-DD AOC||400GE, 2x200GE||100m|
|200G QSFP-DD/QSFP56 AOC||2x100GE, 200GE||100m|
|100G QSFP28 AOC||100GE, 128GFC/4x32GFC||100m-300m|
|50G SFP56 AOC||50GE||100m|
|40G/56G QSFP AOC||40GE, 4x16GFC, 2x25GE, 2x32GFC||150m-300m|
|25G SFP28 AOC||25GE, 32GFC||100m-300m|
|10G SFP+ AOC||10GE||300m|
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