Technologies

  • Trends in 400G Optics for the Data Center

    Data Center Connections are Driving Optics Volume Due to the ongoing large increase in bandwidth demand, data center connections are expected to move from 25G/100G to 100G/400G. Within the Data Center Racks: 10GE is still being deployed, 25GE is starting to be deployed in volume, and 100GE or 50GE will follow. Between Data Center Racks: 40GE is still being deployed, 100GE is starting to be deployed in volume, and 400GE will follow at large cloud service providers. Long Spans, DCI and WAN: 10G DWDM/tunable is still being deployed, 100G/200G coherent starting to be deployed, and 400G coherent will follow—then 600G or 800G. Forecasted Data Center Ethernet Port Shipments Forecasted 400GE Shipments by Market Segment Mainstream 1RU Ethernet Switch Roadmap 3.2Tb/s switches based on 100G QSFP28 modules are being deployed in cloud data centers today. Given the multiple switching ICs expected to be available, the market is likely to be fragmented in the future. Large growth in bandwidth demand is pushing the industry to work on technologies and standards to support future 12.8T switches. 400G and Next-Gen 100G Ethernet Optical Standardization…

    May 13, 2019 0 0 1
  • FEC in 100G Networks and Beyond

    Forward Error Correction (FEC) is used in a variety of contexts to ensure data signal transmission over “noisy” communication channels. The idea behind the technique is to encode the original message prior to transmission with redundant data. This data is an Error Correcting Code (ECC), created by an FEC algorithm scheme, that gets forwarded along with the data and decoded by the receiver. On the receiving end, this affords an opportunity to correct errors—thus reducing the Bit-Error Rate (BER) and increasing reliability. Because the redundant bits are transmitted across the same paths as the original data they are designed to protect, there is a tradeoff between bit-error and data rates. More reliable codes tend to be more complex, with more redundant bits in play. By taking up more space in the transmission channel, such codes can result in lower rates of data transmission—even as they improve received Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). A key concept related to this tradeoff is known as the Shannon limit, also known as channel capacity. Named for information theory pioneer Claude Shannon, this is the theoretical maximum…

    Technologies April 30, 2019 0 0 3
  • Progression from 4G to 5G

    5G, the latest advancement in cellular network evolution, promises pioneering improvements in availability, reliability and performance requirements of the emerging applications in the enterprise segment. Standard bodies like ITU and NGMN have come up with multiple use cases for 5G. Each of these use cases differ in terms of expected data rates, latency, reliability and availability. Hence, they need different treatments by the underlying cellular networks. This article discusses such use cases, shortcomings in 4G to realize these use cases and how 5G promises to handle their stringent requirements. The article further attempts to show a high level migration from 4G EPC to 5G core network—mapping their network components with respect to functionalities. 5G Usage Scenarios Based on the requirements from the wireless networks, the 5G use cases are classified into three main categories: Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB): These scenarios require 5G cellular networks to support very high data rates. 5G performance targets recommended by ITU suggest, peak data rate of 20Gbps in downlink and 10Gbps in uplink. In dense areas, it expects a throughput of 10–100Mbps/m2. Ultra-Reliable and Low…

    April 24, 2019 0 0 17
  • Ethernet for 5G Fronthaul

    5G promises to deliver higher speeds and support revolutionary new use cases, services and applications that connect people and things. No previous RAN technology has been expected to support such a wide range of services with different capacity, latency, synchronization, reliability and connectivity requirements. Operators cannot meet these expectations by building the 5G RAN in isolation from other network domains, including the transport layer. Besides the upgrades to the RAN—which include cell densification, more antennas (i.e. massive MIMO) and the use of existing and new operating frequencies—operators need more fiber and new packet transport technologies that address the diverse applications and corresponding network requirements. Where possible, their 5G plans should leverage existing packet networks to save on cost and speed deployment. 5G was not intended to operate independently or replace existing 4G networks. Rather, 5G radios were engineered to complement existing resources. This is evidenced by a thrust of non-standalone (NSA) configurations in early deployments where the 5G radios attach to the 4G packet core network and use 4G LTE for coverage and 5G for capacity infill. Having overlay networks…

    April 23, 2019 0 0 5
  • The Research of WDM-PON Technology for 5G Fronthaul Applications

    At present, the research on 5G network has formed the first wave, entering into the key stage of technical standard research and R&D(research and development)test. Compared with 4G technology, the performance of 5G network has been significantly improved in terms of handling capability, latency, the number of connection, etc. At the same time, 5G has new challenges for the fronthaul network, such as a lot of new demands on dense optical fiber deployment, higher transmission broadband and low latency. WDM-PON combines the characteristics of WDM technology and PON topology. It has the advantages such as high bandwidth, low latency, saving fiber, simple operation and management, low cost, etc. It has its unique advantages in the application of 5G fronthaul, paid great attention in recent years. Limited by standard and technical maturity, the rate of WDM-PON commercial network or experimental prototype is relatively low, the wavelength of single wave usually not exceeding 10Gbps. In 2015, ITU-T defined the architecture and index of WDM-PON (PtP WDM option) in the NG-PON2 standard. Simultaneously, the line rate was defined to 10Gbps; wavelength assignment information…

    April 12, 2019 0 0 3
  • COBO Facilitates Optical Network to 400G

    There are over 10 companies that have demonstrate the 400G Ethernet optical transceiver in OFC 2018, which are expected to deploy 400G optical transceivers in data centers and Telecom in the end of next year. At the same time, the relative standard formulating works have been laid the foundation of the next technology to adapt to the increasing requirements. The new 400G products usually adopt 8 50G serial links, which are based on the latest PAM-4 module technology. As recently as last week, IEEE had initially approved a set of 100 gigabytes of serial link standards that could lead to the future of the 800G Ethernet standard. At the same time, an industry organization COBO that owns about 70 member companies (On – Board Optics), released the first specification for the module of embedded router and switch the mainboard of the specifications, aimed at 400G ~ 800G products to reduce heat and power consumption problems, as a first step towards the future optoelectronic integrated components. On board optics alliance COBO released the On Board Optics specification 1.0 at OFC 2018,…

    April 11, 2019 0 0 1
  • 5G — the Greatest Revolution in the History of Communications

    In the age of 5G, wireless Internet speeds will increase 100 times, while the cost of traffic will be only a tenth of what they used to be, and the base station’s support capacity will increase 500 times with less power required. The arrival of 5G will destroy a large number of centralized Internet business models. 5G networks will be widely used in large-scale AI, unmanned, Internet of Things, remote work based on the separation of AR and VR from devices and scenes, decentralized and efficient organization and so on. Maybe two years later, the Didi company in China no longer needs to pay much attention to the tension of the relationship. At that time, Didi would become the world’s largest driverless transportation company. After all, managing machines is easier than managing people. And, Huawei would become a new era of Apple&Qualcomm due to the accumulation of chips for 10 years. Recently, it has also been revealed that Huawei is in talks with Microsoft to cooperate. Huawei has developed its own cloud AI chip, Da Vinci, which could be used…

    April 11, 2019 0 0 4
  • 10 Tips You Should Know About 5G Network

    No.1 5G does not mean traffic, but the Fifth Generation of Communication Technology. No.2 If 3G is a single lane, 4G may be three lanes, 5G is ten lanes or more, and there are special lanes. 5G high-speed dedicated channels can generate many innovative personal applications and industry applications. No.3 In the 5G era, the Ready Player One is no longer a movie but a reality. In terms of industry, medical assistance can be more effective. In the future, ambulances can be turned directly into emergency rooms, and experts in hospitals can perform real-time online rescue and surgery. No.4 Where 5G is powerful—stability. Single brand products can have dedicated channels. There will never be any break or delay. No.5 5G can support 8K UHD video transmission. Virtual reality brings a thing far away from you to your face. No.6 The 5G technology is not aimed at ordinary people, but the industry. No.7 Don’t worry that mobile phones will be out of date. Now only the 5G core standards have been set down, other research and development and equipment and so on…

    April 11, 2019 0 0 1
  • The ROADM Is Just a Technological Illusion of Last Generation

    It is an indisputable fact that ROADM is useless. Before the 5G is about to start, people are advised not to mention or pick up this expensive and useless network weapon. The Working Principle of ROADM The working principle of ROADM is shown in the following figure. A, B and C are three station in a WDM system, of which A and C are Optical Terminal Multiplexing (OTM) stations and B is the ROADM station. The service delivered by station A is carried on the wavelengths of λ1 to λ5, where the wavelengths are like the train carriages, and the service is the goods in the carriages. In station B, wavelengths of λ3 and λ5 are downstream, while wavelengths of λ6 and λ9 carry new service upstream, thus realizing directly pass wavelengths (λ1, λ2, λ4), downstream wavelengths (λ3, λ5) and upstream wavelengths (λ6, λ9) at station B. If it is necessary to change the up-down and pass wavelength of B station, it only needs to be configurated by software, and there is no need to make any changes in hardware….

    April 11, 2019 0 0 0
  • Why Most HPC Systems Use InfiniBand Interconnection

    In addition to the well-known Ethernet, there are many other categories of network architecture. For server-side connection scenarios, InfiniBand (IB) technology is valued and used for its inherent characteristics. It has a nearly dominant position, especially in High-Performance Computing (HPC), large data center storage and other scenarios. So what’s the difference between IB and Ethernet? Why most HPC systems use IB interconnection? What InfiniBand Is and Where It Is Used IB is a “cable switching” technology that supports multiple concurrent connections, and it is the I/O standard of the new generation server hardware platform. With the rapid development of CPU performance, the performance of I/O system has become a bottleneck restricting the performance of servers. The PCI bus architecture used in the past does not conform to the new application trend. To overcome the inherent drawbacks of PCI, Intel, Cisco, Compaq, EMC, Fujitsu and other companies jointly launched the IB architecture, the core of which is to separate the I/O system from the server host. At present, only a few companies, such as Mellanox, Intel, Qlogic, can provide IB products….

    April 11, 2019 0 0 0

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